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Thanks are owing to Jason Parker, Executive Associate of the Council, for vree aid and advice in the planning of the conference and for his active and very helpful participation at Scottsdale. We owe thanks also to Frederic Wakeman, Jr.

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Notions of what topic it can usefully be applied to may in turn change historically, frree to focus upon this is one of the purposes of Pocock's conception. Had Chu Hsi gained high position at court, would he have acted like Wang An-shih?

None was properly Chu Hsi's invention, but he worked to promote all three. The pace and content of Chinese daily life had been transformed. Among the means for sharing the preservation of them [i.

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While the population grew about tenfold across this stretch of time, Skinner pointed out, both the of administrative centers from which caht state directly governed and the size of the bureaucracy itself grew little or not at all. This volume s with other recent work in the field to show, we think, that Sung men's views on the state and its proper place changed dramatically over time. We do not deny the potential interest or validity of such an attempt. James T. If we share with Sung thinkers themselves a sense of history and discourse as constituted of continuity as well Fat horny girls in west Portland of change, we yet view them from very different perspectives.

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Lu chiu-Yuan[1] In the Sung dynasty the Chinese state faced challenges that in their combination and intensity were without clear precedent. Paul J. An example is Liu Tsung-yuanfor whom "the offices of the imperial state, their inia, ceremonial, and administrative procedures were 'the means through which the tao is implemented'" p. The Northern Sung tendencies and ideas that asult are concerned with here are largely those of the eleventh century and after, and in particular those of the reformist literary-political movement that promoted "ancient prose" ku-wen as the language of examination writing and of written political and ethical discourse at large.

Thanks to David McMullen's analysis of the T'ang situation we are now in a better position to investigate the extent to which the Sung succeeded in adopting and adapting early T'ang models and to study the continuities and discontinuities between Sung thinkers and their T'ang predecessors. A special interest in central institutions and their workings distinguishes a of Southern Sung political thinkers sometimes referred to as a group as "institutionalists" or "utilitarians"—the latter name in particular fits some of them better than others and sets them in some degree apart from a developing discourse more and more dominated by the so-called Learning of the Way, Tao-hsueh.

The continuity is Older women and sex South Burlington in part by von Glahn's notion of "classical analogism"' as something that united Chu Hsi with Wang An-shih. William Atwell gave us crucial help and insight as hcat envoy from the world of the Ming and Ch'ing. Wright Stanford: Stanford University Press, One is tempted caht see here a foreshadowing of the Southern Sung tendencies we discuss below, But in T'ang even these men remained ambitious for high office, and many thinkers continued to look chiefly toward the center.

Although Chu's memorials addressing the emperor directly do deal in a meaningful way both with issues of personnel and recruitment and with the need to open up the channels of official communication compare Wei Liao-weng, belowtheir strongest message, still, is of the emperor's need to rectify himself and of his capacity, by so avult, to transform those around him and below him.

Mythology of All Races VOL 8: Chinese, Japanese ()

We move in the next section to identify and trace what we have already touched upon: a major change in Kanntangtsun views of state and society. There is certainly something to the idea that as a matter of chhat practicality in the Southern Sung, local-level action—whether as administrator or as indigenous gentleman—was the chief resort available to men like Chu Hsi for long periods of their careers. Our concern lies where political or institutional history meets intellectual history.

Its broad outlines are clear. His current research focuses on the history of the Sung imperial clan. If the late-Ming and Ch'ing and modern!

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Chu Hsi's own work, then, though fundamentally one of synthesis, involved at the same time a sorting out of strands of thinking in his time, all claiming to trace their origins to the Fre, and a selecting among them: in some respects a distillation and purification, as Chu saw it, of the true Ch'eng heritage. But the message, or at least the emphasis of the first section, which we must take as representing Ou-yang's thinking in the s, is strikingly different.

Nivison, "Introduction," in Confucianism in Actioned. Lu Chiu-yuan is here drawing a sharp distinction between Confucians and Buddhists, who he believes are motivated by profit and selfishness in their withdrawal from the world. Among these pairings, we think, is that of kuo-chia versus t'ien-hsiamore conventionally translated as "state" and "world" respectively, treated by Peter Bol in chapter 3 here; but also kuan "the official" or "the authorities" versus min "the people" and even the much-discussed kung "the public" versus ssu "the private".

The work of reconstructing these in the sphere of social-political discourse has only just begun.

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His de-emphasis of personal moral cultivation as a means to social and Horny asian ladies Mora improvement, his especial indifference to the issue of the moral standing of the emperor, his avowed interest in things pragmatic and a willingness to judge a course of action by its aduult than by its means, distinguish him as clearly as his interest in law and central institutions. But to show this would again mean moving to a higher level of generality than the one at which we choose to operate.

Most especially, the idea of a discontinuity between Northern and Southern Sung, and the specific characterizations of that discontinuity in work done so far on social history, prove extremely fruitful for politico-intellectual history as well. Writing in English we face a problem chwt distance and the need for translation.

Here Su, like Ou-yang and virtually all others who talked politics in Northern Sung, takes the perspective of the man at the center.

Belton M. Fleisher

Ou-yang does here treat all influences as proceeding outward from the political center, and his image of the governance of the ancient kings does suggest that the state cuat its institutions can and should determine what sort of society it will be governing. We are in her debt.

McMullen also observes that the court maintained a relaxed attitude toward the world of scholarship, assured of "the loyalty of a scholarly community eager for official service" p. The Sung capital was K'ai-feng, lying on the north China plain. For Su what feee attractive in this was that it did without a grand administrative scheme and instead made use of natural or automatic processes already in play.

In his analysis of the debate between Chu Hsi and Ch'en Liang, Hoyt Tillman has shown Sung Confucian discourse to have been multileveled, operating on metaphysical, cultural, and sociopolitical levels yet still focusing its debates around a common term, the Way Tao. Far from the state's molding society, influence may chhat more easily in the other direction: as Hatch notes, Su held that "it was not enough to blame the administrators of laws Sex dating in Holland corruption of the system and litigiousness in court.

A special interest in central institutions and their workings distinguishes a of Southern Sung political thinkers sometimes referred to as a group as "institutionalists" or "utilitarians"—the latter name in particular fits some of them better than others and sets them in some degree apart from a developing discourse more and more dominated by the so-called Learning of the Way, Tao-hsueh.

It is worth dealing with these more fully: they are important background for all that follows. Cgat are broad considerations, and largely obvious.

This introduction was written before we were able to take of the important new work on Shao Yung by Anne D. Von Glahn states the case strongly in chapter 5: "Southern Sung political thought was marked by a loss of faith in state activism.

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